All about Grape – Introduction and Importance

all-about-grape

History
The cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. The earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia.

Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the innovation of alcoholic drinks such as wine. The earliest known production occurred around 8,000 years ago on the territory of Georgia. During an extensive gene-mapping project, archaeologists analyzed the heritage of more than 110 modern grape cultivars, and narrowed their origin to a region in Georgia, where wine residues were also discovered on the inner surfaces of 8,000-year-old ceramic storage jars. The oldest winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East. Thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production. The growing of grapes would later spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, and eventually in North America.

In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the Vitis genus proliferate in the wild across the continent, and were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. Vitis vinifera cultivars were imported for that purpose. wikipedia

The grape belongs to genus Vitis which comprises about sixty species. However, the principal species from which the cultivated grape has been derived is Vitis vinifera. There are three broad division of grapes: Dessert grapes, wine grapes and Raisin grapes. Grapes are rapidly becoming a popular home grown fruit. They are consumed fresh, as juices and wine, …

Biological Classification

Kingdom
Plantae
Division
Magnoliophyta
Class
Magnoliopsida
Order
Vitales
Family
Vitaceae
Genus
Vitis
Species
V. vinifera

Introduction and Importance:

The grape belongs to genus Vitis which comprises about sixty species. However, the principal species from which the cultivated grape has been derived is Vitis vinifera. There are three broad division of grapes: Dessert grapes, wine grapes and Raisin grapes. Grapes are rapidly becoming a popular home grown fruit. They are consumed fresh, as juices and wine, as raisins, jam and jelly Sand as frozen products. In Pakistan only european grapes are cultivated for eating. Over 70% of grapes are grown in Balochistan, while there are some acreage in NWFP.

 

Area And Production Of Grapes In Pakistan: 



Year
 



Total Area (Hectares)
 



Production(Tones)
 


1998-99 


8943 


75847 


1999-00 


10433 


40283 


2000-01 


12456 


51045 


2001-02 


12737 


52613 


2002-03 


12745 


51873 


2003-04 


12793 


50833


2004-05


12994


49076

 
Grapes in Pakistan
In Pakistan, only European grapes are cultivated for eating. Over 70% of the grapes are grown in Balochistan, while there is some acreage in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Grape is one of the most remunerative summer fruit crops, native to warm, temperate zone between 34oN and 49oS

Mountainous and sub-mountainous areas up to 2000 m altitude or more are suitable for its cultivation. In Pakistan, grapes are grown over an area of 13,000 ha with annual production of 49.0 thousand tones. Its crop require long, warm, dry summers and cool winters for best development.

Botany
Grapes are produced on vines which are trained on wires running on both side of plant.

Leaf Buds: The buds develop in the leaf axils. Leaf buds produce only leafy shoots,while leaf buds produce shoots which also carry one or two flower clusters opposite the leaves.

Tendrils: Tendrils also develop on these shoots opposite some of the leaves.Labrusca grapes develop tendrils opposite each lateral leaf, which support the shoots by coiling around the wires.

Inflorescence: Inflorescences are produced laterally on the third or fourth node of one-year-old shoots called canes.

Flower:
The flowers are usually complete and perfect, but male or female flowers are also found in some varieties. Each flower has 5 green sepals,5 greenish white petals, 5 stamens, and 2 carpels each containing 2 ovules. Blooming is followed by vegetative growth after dormancy is over.

Environmental Effects
Blooming is more rapid at temperature between 18 and 21oC and is retarted if the temperature reaches 37oC. Pollination, which is carried out by insects,takes place even in seedless cultivars. The fruit is a berry of variable size in each variety and is borne in clusters.

Soil And climate:

A deep fertile well drained loamy soil with a moderate amount of organic matter is best. A pH range from 5.5 to 7.0 is satisfactory. On soil low in fertility grapes grow slowly and produce low yield. Heavy clayey soil should be avoided. Grapes are grown in mild sub-tropical conditions. They require a winter which is cold enough to fulfill their chilling requirements. European grapes grow and bear well under a long, warm to hot, dry summer. In Punjab onset of monsoon weather during the ripening period cause the failure of grapes.

Propagation:
Generally propagated by cuttings. Ripe wood cutting. 12-18 inches long with 5-8 nodes taken from last year’s canes of meium thickness are best to ensure their proper rooting. To ensure their proper rooting they may be tied in small bundles and heeled inverted in earth with their bases up lightly covered with soil for a week.

Irrigation:
Immediately after plantation the grape vines require irrigation. After every 10 days in the first summer. Afterwards they should be irrigated after an interval of 20-25 days in summer and once a month during winter.

Fertilizer:
Grapes are slow to show the effects of fertilizer deficiences but lack of fertilizer over a period of years results in a gradual decline in growth and yield. Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium fertilizer should be applied during winter or early spring to maintain the plants.

Prunning:
Training and pruning depend upon the system you select. Initially your plants should prune to develop a single strong shoot with several well placed laterals. Most common pruning systems in grapes are Head, Corden and Cane systems. Head system does not need any support, but good results can be aieved in those varieties which bear on the lowest second or third bud. Cordon system requires a two-wire trellis. Select the laterals and train them along the wires. These form the permanent arms of the cordon. Each spring, prune the canes that grow from the cordon back to one or two buds each and thin the upright branches to four or five on each permanent arm. Cane system is similar to cordon system with little changes.

Insects Pest And Diseases:

The grape leaf hopper: It is the common insect pest feed on the vines from the time leaves apear in the spring until they drop in the fall. They remove the green clorophyll, and the whole leaf may become pale, die and turn brown.

Powdery mildew is a fungul disease prevalent on grapes. Any portion of plant such as leaves, blossom, fruit and young shoots may be affected. White patches appearance may be noted on leaves young shoots; blossom fail to set fruit. Young berries attacked by this fungus may drop, or become hardened, discoloured and cracked. To contol powdery mildew apply fungicides before symptoms appear.

Root knot caused by a gall-forming nematode may become a problem in sandy and sandy loam soil, resulting in adecline in vine vigor and reduction in yields To control it use resistant rootstocks and fumigate the soil.

Key Reference : parc.gov.pk

-Grape, Grape Growing Guide, Fruit, Growing Guide,

 

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