by M. Tanees ch
Groundnut commonly known as “Moong phalli” in Pakistan.The main and prime characteristics of Groundnut is that all parts of the plant can be put to use. It is consider as a most useful rotation crop. Groundnut has the advantage that it can fix nitrogen as it is a legume crop. Groundnut aids in generating residual nitrogen so that it is helpful for subsequent crops. Soil fertility maintenance and controlling of soil erosion are also involved in its major benefits. Because of the importance of groundnut, its demand increasing day by day.
Good agronomic and postharvest handling practices can increase its yield and acreage. The first thing is the variety selection. High yielding popular and improved varieties should be put to use. These varieties are easily available at Research stations and seed companies. Then site selection is important. Groundnut grow best in loose, well drained, deep, light textured, loam or sandy clay loam soils. Seedling emergence and seed germination are favoured in these kind of soils. The pegs can easily be penetrate and harvesting of pods in such soils are comparatively easy. Then the land preparation is the next step. Excellent land preparation aids suitable soil conditions for uniform and rapid germination of seedlings. Previously growing weeds and crop residues should be completely buried or removed and in order to provide good soil-to seed contact, seed beds should be smooth. Time of planting and soil moisture are also main factors for better yields in groundnut productions. Three stages where moisture germination is necessary.1) At planting stage.2) From 50-100 days after planting.3) Pod filling stage.
Seed depth should be 5-6 cm and the spacing (45×10-15cm for semi erect type varieties and (45× 7.5-10cm for bunch type varieties. Weeds are the major threat for groundnut production, particularly 3-6 weeks after sowing. Therefore removal of weeds is necessary. Weeds removal is done first before flowering and other during pegging. Earthing up in groundnut is avoided as this can increases diseases especially white mold. As a result pod yield reduce. Soil fertility in groundnut field is maintained with the application of optimum quantities of manures and fertilizer.Single super phosphate at the rate of 100-125 kg/ha or triple super phosphate at 80-90 kg/ha will boost yield. When a fairly number of pods are fully developed, it is the indicator of harvesting. Groundnut is primarily used as a vegetable cooking oil. Kernals of groundnut are used as snacks or food for human. Large list of groundnut food products are available in Pakistan like boiled nuts, groundnut butter, groundnut cheese and various bakery products. (Agrihunt)
About Authors: Mr. M. Tanees ch is author of Agrihunt and student of 7th semester in Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
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