Dr. Muhammad Rasheed
Pakistan, especially Punjab, is an agro-livestock based economy. Livestock & Dairy sector is the main segment of agro-economy playing a key role in providing major source of animal protein in shape of milk, meat and eggs to the consumers. In 2010-11 livestock constituted 11.5 % of the total GDP and accounted for about 55.1% of agricultural value added at the micro level. Punjab province of Pakistan possess tremendous resources of agriculture & livestock capable of meeting local and export demand of livestock products. The livestock-based surpluses can be exported with adaptation and implementation of international food safety standards & certification having efficient product traceability system covering Farm to Fork compliance regime.
Effective Animals / livestock Registration and Identification System is central to manage disease surveillance, reporting, diagnosis, control and ultimate eradication of most fatal diseases in the country. To this end, various identification systems are available to identify the animal, the owner or the stock with more detail to identify and to record their progress in terms of weight gain, fertility, susceptibility to sickness, etc which facilitate the farmers for breeding selection and management of their animals / livestock. Identification of animals is also helpful when carrying out diagnostic procedures (e.g. testing for a disease) so that animals that test positive can be treated or culled.
Such system having animal registration and identification tools for addressing animal health (including zoonoses) and food safety issues is crucial part of veterinary public health aspects. Effective implementation of system may significantly improve the effectiveness of activities such as the management of disease outbreaks and food safety incidents, vaccination programmes, herd/flock husbandry, zoning/compartmentalisation, surveillance, early response and notification systems, animal movement controls, inspection, certification, fair practices in trade and the utilisation of veterinary drugs, feed and pesticides at farm level.
As there is a strong relationship between animal identification and the traceability of animals and products of animal origin, so while considering export regime in line with the national and international food safety standards, the animal traceability system is pre-requisite for export of products from animal origin having linked throughout the animal production and food chain.
With the establishment of animal registration and identification system under public entity for target area will lead towards focussed activities on productivity enhancement, linkages development for national and international markets by declaring disease free particular area, zone or compartment. This establishment will support in management of livestock emergencies e.g. natural catastrophes or man-made events and also in trade for inspection and certification activities of veterinary services, as desired under international obligations by managing aspects of animal husbandry such as animal performance, breed characteristics, genetic potential and progeny testing data.
2. Main intentions:
• To establish animal registration and identification system under public entity for particular area, zone or compartment.
• To define an assessment of the risks to be addressed and a consideration of the factors involved therein.
• To develop and implement legal framework, procedures, the competent Authority, identification of establishments/owners, animal identification and animal movements.
• To maintain animal health with efficient disease surveillance, reporting, detection, control of disease and vaccination programmes.
• To ensure public health with effective surveillance and control of zoonotic diseases and food safety.
• To support in management of livestock emergencies e.g. natural catastrophes or man-made events.
• To support in trade for inspection and certification activities of veterinary services, as desired under international obligations.
• To manage aspects of animal husbandry such as animal performance, breed characteristics, genetic potential and progeny testing data.
• To implement Standards Operating Procedures in the country to have Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) in line with the OIE requirement
3. Legal Umbrella:
Support with legal frame work from relevant governmental agencies and in consultation with stakeholders needs implementation and enforcement of Punjab Animal Registration & Identification System (PARIS) in the province. Such system should be under the responsibility of the Veterinary Authority at national as well as at provincial level.
With the concern, draft National Food Safety, Animal and Plant Health Regulatory Authority Act, 2012 is under consideration for approval and implementation by Ministry of Food Security and Research, Government of Pakistan. The draft Bill indicates the establishment of Provincial Animal Health Authorities at provinces to cover Farm to Fork Food Safety & Hygiene compliance for domestic and international trade requirements. The proposed draft Bill needs to add section on Animal Registration and Identification System in Pakistan.
The draft Animal Health Act, 2011, being articulated by PRMP and L&DDD may also be reviewed to address the legal framework needs as follows:
• Obligations of the L&DDD and stake holders.
• Organisational arrangements, including the choice of technologies and methods used for the animal registration & identification system.
• Process and management of intra district / province animal movement.
• Establishing database with confidentiality of data having clear data accessibility mechanism.
• Efficient checking, verification, inspection and penalties procedures
• Propose where relevant, funding mechanisms / arrangements to support a pilot project
4. Modus Operandi:
Animal identification is always necessary for farmer / owner as well as for state with concern of registration as animal population for further development aspects. In this context, various techniques for placing identifying marks on or within an animal’s body have been developed for effecting identification that meets these management needs and requirements ranging from hot / cool branding to Radio Frequency Identification Device / chip.
4.1. Ear Tags:
In Punjab Animal Registration & Identification System (PARIS), the means of registration and identification of animals will be ‘tags’. Presently different types have been developed and used like neck tags, tail tags and ear tags. The commonest form of external identification currently in use is probably the ear tag. Ear tagging technology has made significant progress over the last decade and a generation of tamper-resistant and easily readable tags has evolved that would remain in place for the life of the animal. Basic requirements of registration and identification, is to use any device to identify livestock needs to satisfy three basic criteria i) it must be affordable, ii) durable and iii) clearly readable from a reasonable distance. For that purpose Plastic Ear Tags, using laser-printing techniques for codes, visible from a distance of two meters or more will be used.
In PARIS, the codes on the tags will be having unique no ensuring two animals in the same identified population should not have the same identification code printed on the tag. The individual animal identity will hold its Province of Birth, District, Union Council, Village, owner of animal or herd with a unique animal number within that herd or ownership.
4.3. From Identification to Traceability:
The PARIS will identify an animal with ear tags codes to build a traceability system where the animal’s unique identification in combination with movement record will used to provide traceability. The success of a traceability system is a register of properties/places which may send and receive livestock, and a register of valid livestock identification codes and the users to whom they were issued. The recording of livestock movements between registered holdings will be made mandatory, and there must be a means of auditing and enforcement of such movement recording under prescribed legal bindings for livestock owners. In summary, a traceability system will be established having:
1. A property or holdings register.
2. An agreed means of identification.
3. A register of identification codes and the initial operators/farmers to whom they were issued.
4. A method of recording animal movements so that transfer of animals (with their identification codes) to subsequent owners can be followed.
All properties, identification codes and movements will be recorded on a computer system (Database) for ease of retrieving / manipulation data when movements need to be tracked. L&DDD, with relevant governmental department and in consultation with the private sector, will establish a Animal Registration & Identification System with all relevant data / information as a database being supported by specific software /hardware.
4.5. Implementation Phases:
4.5.1. Livestock present at Government Livestock farms and Research Station in Punjab.
4.5.2. Pilot Target Districts:
a) Lahore and Kasur
b) Chakwal and Bahawalpur
c) Sahiwal, Okara, Pakpattan, Bahawlnagar, Faisalabad and Sarghodha
4.6. Implementing Strategy
4.6.1. (option 01)
184.108.40.206. Staff Needed:
Induction of Livestock component with position as Livestock Traceability Expert (LTE) as head with 3 field officers team members for one district (Option 01)
Staff for 1 District: Team Leader 01 Scale 18 or more
Team members 03 Scale 17 or more
Field staff 20 Scale 9
Induction through Deputation, attachment, transfer or new recruitment as acceptable by L&DDD
i. Deputation in line with prescribed rules as applicable under government.
ii. Attachment by incentivizing with honoraria, allowances and fringe benefits
iii. Transfer on equal position with resources and budget from project
iv. New recruitment on market based salary / package
1. Development of appropriated formats for complete profile of animals
2. Meetings with farmers and livestock owners prior start of physical activities of traceability.
3. Registrations of livestock with their production recording by deputed staff on prescribed format.
4. Training of deputed staff on traceability aspects
5. Allotments of unique code / number
6. Physical ear tagging having allotted number
7. Entering in the database
8. Regular updating of database
9. Selection of progressive farmers to move forward on certification and accreditation
10. Market linkages development at local and international level
11. Regular reporting to Supply Chain Management Unit
4.6.2. Option 02
Target focused interventions with per animal registration and ear tagging service fee for responsible staff (option 02)
Responsible staff will be paid per animal registration and era tagging service fee to concerned staff of district.
1. Listing of concerned staff at each district
2. Percentage fixation for registration and ear tagging fee for field and supervisory staff
3. Development of appropriated formats for complete profile of animals
4. Meetings with farmers and livestock owners prior start of physical activities of traceability.
5. Registrations of livestock with their production recording by concerned staff on prescribed format.
6. Training of concerned staff on traceability aspects
7. Allotments of unique code / number
8. Physical ear tagging having allotted number
9. Verification of ear tagging by supervisory staff
10. Entering in the database
11. Payment to concerned staff as per agreed methodology and creteria
12. Regular updating of database
13. Selection of progressive farmers to move forward on certification and accreditation
14. Market linkages development at local and international level
15. Regular reporting to Supply Chain Management
4.7. Available support
• Staff of L&DDD
• Animal / Livestock in target districts
• Available Animal Identification and Traceability System with CABROP®, an authorized partner of HACCP NORTH having MoU with L&DDD
• Milk and Meat Safety Agency as concept with inception report and working mechanism
• Punjab Food Authority is on board, be approached to get coordination on Milk and Meat component under PFA area of working with supply chain management interventions
• Draft Bill on National Food Safety, Plant and Animal Health Regulatory Authority is with Ministry of National Food Security and Research to become legal document.
Funds are available for the effective implementation of proposal with Supply Chain Improvement Project, Agriculture Department, Government of the Punjab in its livestock sector component.
Dr. Muhammad Rasheed