Modern Agriculture and its impact on our Daily Life: SEMINAR

karachi-uniI.        Seminar Information:

a)   Seminar Description:

This title has been techniques in our living places. By this informative seminar we are chosen by analyzing the scenario of low production of agricultural products and describing the modern agricultural techniques well as in this informative seminar we also describe the application and role of pesticidesin  modern agricultural trying to enhance the knowledge about the modern agriculture and its Impact in Our Daily Life.

“AGRICULTURE is a universe with in itself, So come and explore it”.

b)   Time of seminar: 9:OO am To 3:OO pm

c)    Date for seminar: 26 October 2013

d)   Seminar venue: Arts Auditorium University of Karachi

 

II.        Objective of Seminar:

a)    This seminar will cover core issues like factors responsible for low production, implementation, Role of pesticides, fertilizersand importance of modern techniques to eliminate the local problems mainly in, livestock, crop production and agricultural mechanization, interdependence between agricultural sciences and the existence of this universe, and the influence of agriculture on the modern world.

 

III.        Activities:

a)   Will provide a participation card, seminar file containing a pen, note pad and brochures having information.

b)   Interactive sessions using video clips, real time discussions etc.

c)    Informative technical and lead presentations by the respective experts.

d)   Panel discussion of exporters, speakers, researchers.

e)   Hi-tea

f)     Lunch

g)   Certificate Distribution.

Objectives:

  • Ø To brief the importancemodern agriculture and implementation about the Modern techniques of Agriculture to the students.
  • Ø Modern agriculture brings enormous economic and social benefits to consumers including: Improved quality of daily life and living standards as food and nutrition costs decline.
  • Ø Modern agriculture increases global political stability by making more food and nutrition available, improving its quality and making it accessible to more people.
  • Ø To expose the difficulties faced by Pakistan in result low productive, agricultural backwardness, and overcoming them with the implementations of modern agriculture.
  • Ø Modern techniques used to enhance the productivity and implementations mainly in Food and Nutrition, Crop production & Livestock section and Agricultural Mechanization.
  • Ø Elaborate the acknowledgement that Agriculture is the basis of everything in this universe in a modern perspective.
  • Ø Introduction to modern techniques, their importance and implementations in agricultural mechanization.
  • Ø This comprehensive will examine the environmental impact of pesticides, fertilizers and food security, availability made by agriculture in the 21st Century.
  • Ø Giving students vision to the core of subject and inculcating them the importance of modern agriculture in daily life.
  • Ø Provide opportunities to make a firm interaction between the students and representatives of the different industries, organizations, farmersandcompanies to initiate the critical role of pesticides, fertilizersand impact of modern agriculturein daily life.

 

Impact of Modern Agriculture on Our Daily Life

 

During the latter half of the twentieth century, what is known today as modern agriculture was very successful in meeting a growing demand for food by the world’s population. Yields of primary crops such as rice and wheat increased dramatically, the price of food declined, the rate of increase in crop yields generally kept pace with population growth, and the number of people who consistently go hungry was slightly reduced. This boost in food production has been due mainly to scientific advances and new technologies, including the development of new crop varieties, the use of pesticides and fertilizers, and the construction of large irrigation systems.

There is really little mystery about why agriculture is important it is the physical foundation of human energy, health, and physical wellbeingall key components of every important human activity. To the degree these components are missing, the human existence is defined primarily by the effort necessary to provide them. Making them more widely available at lower costs increases the capacity of any population to invest in more productive work, education, economic development and cultural activities.

The basic facts are clear:

More people the world over eat more and better because of modern agriculture. Increased production continues to enable steadily improving diets, reflecting increased availability of all foods, dietary diversity and access to high-protein food products;

The additional food modern systems provide has enabled hundreds of millions of people to realize more of their potential and better lives—thus enhancing the achievements of all, from students to retirees. It increases workforce productivity and generally supports human development and growth;

The current hunger and malnutrition that extends to some one billion people reflects poor policies, low productivity and low incomes. Failure to continue to apply new technologies to advance productivity on the farm and across the food system simply worsens every aspect of these problems, especially those forced on individuals and families who live in poverty. To a very large extent, current food insecurity problems reflect bad policies, poor infrastructure and low economic productivity in the nations where these conditions occur, rather than a physical lack of food or food production capacity.

Increased agricultural production is most often brought about by the introduction of improved crop varieties and by creating an optimal environment such that the plants and animals can develop to their full potential. Planting, tending and harvesting a crop requires both a significant amount of power and a suitable range of tools and equipment. Mechanization of farming has allowed an increase to the area that can be planted and has contributed towards increased yields, mainly due to the precision with which the crop husbandry tasks can be accomplished. In fact, most farmers in developing countries experience a greater annual expenditure on farm power inputs than on fertilizer, seeds or agrochemicals.

Crop production systems have evolved rapidly over the past century and have resulted in significantly increased yields. Unfortunately, on some occasions the production systems have created undesirable environmental side-effects amongst which soil degradation and erosion, pollution from chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals and a loss of bio-diversity are just a few of the examples that have been highlighted over recent years. Furthermore, not only were some crop production systems found to be unsustainable in an environmental sense, in some locations neither were they sustainable in an economic sense. Of equal concern was the observation that in some cases it was only the work undertaken by men that was mechanized. The tasks traditionally performed by women remained unchanged although the work demanded of them increased as the area planted and the yields increased.

It is against this background that the work in agricultural mechanization has focused on the following aspects:

  • all types of farm power (human, animal and mechanical) including the related social, economic and environmental dimensions;
  • standards for farm tools, machinery and equipment, together with codes of conduct for their safe use (implemented in close collaboration with the plant production and protection division);
  • technical, policy and strategy issues concerning mechanization;
  • alternative crop establishment technologies such as conservation agriculture.

The significant hunger and malnutrition that persist in many parts of the world would have been far worse had agricultural systems not grown and developed as they did;

 

The physical pressures on the environment that have become increasingly prominent public concerns have been greatly ameliorated by modern agriculture, which has reduced:

The need to expand land area, and thereby reduced pressure to cultivate fragile lands and forested areas. Modern agriculture includes successful new technologies, including biotechnology to enable both higher yields and reduced environmental impacts. These reduce the land, fertilizer and pesticide use per unit of output;

Pressure on grassland, forestland and cropland thus increasing wildlife habitat as a result;

 

 

While the unintended negative environmental consequences of modern agriculture are frequently noted, little mention is ever made of the negative environmental impacts that frequently arise from smallholder farming, especially from slash and burn‖ primitive systems in wide use in developing countries where vertical rows are often planted up steep hillsides, resulting in some of the world’s heaviest soil erosion, badly polluted watercourses and many other problems of both efficiency and sustainability. The lack of sustainability of these practices can be seen in the fact that they typically lead to abandonment of successive plots year after year;

 

Processing technology and handling advancements contribute enormously to improved food safety through pathogen reductions and large reductions in post-harvest losses that

 

Further increase food supplies. Pasteurization of milk, canning, freezing, and other processing technologies significantly reduce health risks associated with food. Threats from bacteria and other contaminants are still important, but the risks of illness and death are far less than in the past, a fact that is widely underappreciated;

Modern agriculture brings enormous economic and social benefits to consumers including:

improved quality of life and living standards as food costs decline. This effectively raises consumer incomes since it leaves greater purchasing power for other consumer goods, for education, health care, leisure, etc., a trend that has been a major driver of economic growth in developed countries, and in some developing countries, as well. Today, consumers in the United States spend less than 10% of their disposable income for food while many in the developing world spend from half or more of their income on food, a huge drag on quality of life. It is now widely recognized that the development of modern food system has been a major factor in improving the standard of living enjoyed in much of the world today;

When consumers spend the major share of their income and virtually all of their daily efforts simply to find food, little money or time is left for human investments. This  survival treadmill‖ characterizes the lives of most smallholder farmers, especially in developing countries;

Modern agriculture increases global political stability by making more food available, improving its quality and making it accessible to more people.

Without the advances that characterize modern agriculture, the world arguably would be a much more dangerous and volatile place because more people would be food insecure as the food price spikes of mid-2008 clearly illustrated.

Development of a robust, rules-based trading system has been extremely important in improving food distribution and increasing accessibility in food-deficit areas.

The major threat to modern agricultural development comes not from lack of interest and willingness to invest by farmers, but from increasingly vocal opposition from a constellation of activists who have succeeded in shifting agricultural policies in several areas.

 

In modern agricultural systems farmers believe they have much more central roles and are eager to apply technology and information to control most components of the system, a very different view from that of traditional farmers. In contrast to the isolation inherent in traditional arrangements, modern agriculture tends to see its success as dependent on linkages access to resources, technology, management, investment, markets and supportive government policies.

As a result, much of the success of modern systems depends on the development and maintenance of soil fertility through the specific provision of nutrients when they are depleted; of machine power and technology to create soil conditions necessary to promote plant growth with minimal disturbance and minimal soil loss; of the use of improved genetics for crops and livestock to enhance yields, quality and reliability; and, on modern genetic and other techniques to protect plants and livestock from losses to competing plants, diseases, drought insects and other threats.

This success also depends on access to efficient, effective irrigation to supplement rainfall in many climates; on advanced harvesting, handling and storage equipment and techniques to prevent losses and to market commodities efficiently. It depends, in turn, on both public and private investment to provide access to technology, equipment, information and physical facilities throughout the production-marketing system. And, it depends on well supported commercial and financial systems and broad public policies that support effective commercial markets at all levels that generate economic returns throughout the system.

Most developed nations traditionally invested heavily over time in their agricultural systems to insure access to the food products they need as they grow and expand. This involved a highly complex, although often implied ―social contract.‖ Society was expected to support for various aspects of a competitive, commercial agricultural sector that assured abundant supplies of healthful food and fiber products, in response to consumer demands expressed through efficient markets. The system also was expected to generate private investment sufficient to maintain future growth.

The government commitment also frequently included support in the form of public investment in critical infrastructure, market information and regulation, basic research and development, training and education in a number of key areas—as is done for most other important economic sectors.

The primary benefit from this investment has been agriculture’s strong productivity growth—passed on through the enhancement of national economic wellbeing in the form of more abundant food available at declining shares of disposable income. In addition, the agricultural sector was expected to share its productivity with the world, especially developing countries through both competitively priced food exports and through aid programs.

Despite this long standing arrangement throughout most developed countries, agriculture today frequently finds itself in the crosshairs of critics who are keen to impose their own, often utopian views on how agriculture should be organized.9 These are frequently based on very different economic and social objectives than those typically assumed in the original contract as it evolved over the years. Some would go so far as to replace the modern system with small organic homesteads and urban gardens in an effort to return agriculture to some  traditional‖ state or, at least, to constrain additional growth or use of non-traditional technologies.

Many such visions are not just aspirations, but are predicated upon a wide array of charges against the modern sector made by activists in support of a broad range of causes. These are often joined by a growing group of writers, columnists, journalists and others (including some public officials) who share their views.

This barrage of criticism frequently reflects real concerns about the environment, food safety and other perceived threats, but that is not always the case, it must be said. Many others reflect little more than vague promises of greater pleasure from a new  food culture‖ and of a quieter, factory free, pollutant free system with enhanced animal care. Some are based merely on the assertion of ―tensions‖ between modern agriculture and nature.

Utopian views and efforts to organize and live in accordance with them are not new, of course history is replete with examples. What is new is the willingness and capacity of some activists to attack the modern system for its success, its growth and expansion and its prosperity, and then to argue that utopian approaches can better achieve even better, although amorphous goals based mainly on separate criteria they use to define those objectives.

Conclusion

Modern agriculture must seek to feed the world’s growing population with little or no cost to the Environment. Modern agriculture is capable of producing greater yields than ever before, but intensification of agriculture does come at a price. This comprehensive volume examines the environmental impact made by agriculture in the 21st Century, looking forward to the future with the lessons of the past. Key chapters include impacts of agriculture upon soil quality, greenhouse gas budgets, water-borne pathogens, surface water chemistry, groundwater, agricultural pesticides and the environment, balancing the environmental consequences of agriculture with the needs for food security and positive and negative aspects of agricultural production of biofuels. To concentrate basically on modern techniques their importance and implementations in agriculture.

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