Types of Bacteria

Types of Bacteria
Types of Bacteria

Bacteria are classified under a distinct kingdom because of its peculiar cellular and morphological characteristics that makes it different and distinct from all other kingdoms like fungi, animal and virus. Bacteria are microscopic, unicellular (single celled) ancient organisms that are responsible for a number of lethal diseases. There are different types of bacteria that shares classic morphological characteristics of the kingdom but are classified differently in 5 major groups on the basis of their habitat, laboratory characteristics, staining methods, requirement of certain nutrients for the generation of energy and presence of certain cytoplasmic extensions like flagella or cilia (that are helpful in the motility of bacteria).

This article will discuss some major characteristics that are helpful in the determination of different types of bacteria.

Watch an overview of good bacteria vs. bad bacteria, then refer to more details of the classification:

5 Types of Harmful Bacteria

 

Bacteria Type

Description

Streptococcus Pyogenes

Streptococcus Pyogenes is the causative agent of
mild sore throat and skin infections that may worsen in certain
situations to lead to life threatening infections like toxic shock
syndrome and septicemia (when bacteria gain access to the blood
stream). It is classified as gram positive coccus that grows mainly
in chains.

Escherichia Coli

E- Coli is a gram negative bacillis as discussed
previously and is considered as a causative agent of traveler’s
diarrhea; however some pathogenic strains can also lead to bloody
diarrhea and circulatory shock.

Vibrio Cholerae

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera
and is associated with intake of improperly cooked food or poor
sanitary conditions. Vibrio Cholerae is linked to hundreds and
thousands of deaths worldwide (mostly in under- developed countries)
due to cholera outbreak.

Enteritis Salmonella

The most common causative agent of food poisoning
throughout the world is Enteritis salmonella and can lead to serious
and life threatening food poisoning, diarrhea, circulatory shock and
dehydration in children. Infection can be controlled by timely
intake of proper antibiotics and circulatory support.

Salmonella Typhi

Salmonella Typhi is a gram negative organism that is
the causative agent of typhoid fever. It is associated with a high
mortality rate after initial infection and characterized by blood
diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, fever and may lead to death if
proper treatment is not instituted at the right time.

 

5 Types of Beneficial Bacteria
Not all the bacteria are bad for human survival. Our body is loaded with hundreds and thousands of bacteria that serve to colonize our body in order to prevent overgrowth of pathogenic elements. In addition these bacteria also serve a variety of functions. Examples of beneficial bacteria are:

Bacteria Type

Description

Lactobacillus acidophilus

Lactobacillus acidophilus exists in different parts
of human body like intestine, vagina and oral cavity. It is
responsible for slightly acidic pH of vagina that is helpful in
preventing overgrowth of other microorganisms. In addition it is
also known to boost immunity.

Due to its beneficial properties, it is used in a variety of
dietary products like tempeh, yogurt, miso and probiotics
supplements.

Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus subtilis occurs independently in the
environment around us and was first used by Nazi army to manage
diarrheal illness. It helps in normalizing gut motility and
metabolic functioning.

It is fortified in products like yogurt, cheese,
milk, ice cream and fermented soybeans.

Bifidobacterium animalis

Bifidobacterium animalis is found in the intestine
of animals and humans as a normal commensal that aid in digestive
process. In addition it can also be consumed in supplemental doses
to improve the symptoms of constipation or irritable bowel syndrome.

Streptococcus thermophilus

Streptococcus thermophilus is classified under
coccus and it has the ability to withstand a temperature of about
212 degrees Fahrenheit. Streptococcus thermophilus strengthen
immunity and improves the functioning of gut. It can be obtained
from cheese and other dairy products.

Lactobacillus reuteri

Lactobacillus reuteri is one of the probiotics
agents that are present in maternal breast milk and becomes a
permanent part of gut flora. It is also present in dietary sources
like yogurt and cheese.

 

Types of Bacteria According to Gram Staining
Since bacterial organisms are so minute, it is impossible to view the organisms without compound microscope. In order to visualize the cellular components and to differentiate bacteria from other microbial agents, staining techniques are used by scientists to categorize different bacteria.

Gram staining is a special method that involves dying the outer covering of the bacterial cell wall that prevents it from physical and environmental trauma. On the basis of gram staining, bacteria are widely classified as gram positive (bacteria with the cell wall) and gram negative (bacteria without cell- wall).

There are a number of structural and functional variations in the bacteria of one group that helps in adapting these bacterial agents to survive in one environment where other bacteria cannot.

Bacteria Type

Description

Coccus

Coccus is rounded or spherical in shape and may
occur in chains or clusters. These occurs abundantely in the
environment and also as normal commensal on the human body (in
nostrils, skin, oral cavity and genitals).

If these pathogens grow excessively, diseases like
impetigo, food poisoning and tonsillitis may occur

Examples are: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus
pyogenes

Bacillus

Bacilli are rod shaped and may be gram positive or
negative on staining. Most popular species are salmonella (the
causative agent of typhoid) and E- Col (causative agent for
hemorrhagic diarrhea). Gram negative as well as gram positive
bacilli are well known causative agents for gastroenterological,
pulmonary and cutaneous infections.

Rickettsia

Rickettsia is considered unique bacteria since it is
incapable of surviving outside living organisms. Due to unstable
morphological features, it is transmitted by different vector
sources like ticks, fleas and mites to cause life threatening
infectious diseases like Rocky mountain spotted fever and typhus.

Mycoplasma

All bacteria are characterized by a cell wall
outside cell-membrane; however, mycoplasma is unique as it lacks a
cell wall that is also considered a protective mechanism that makes
it easier for bacteria to evade antibiotic therapies. It is
causative agent for life threatening pulmonary infections and some
strains may cause pelvic disease.

Spirillum

Spirillum is different from other bacterial agents
as it is cork-screw shaped. It includes causative agent of Lyme’s
disease (transmitted by tick bites) and syphilis.

Courtesy New Health Guide

Published in ZaraiMedia.com

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