Pakistan’s Rivers System
Pakistan’s Rivers System Diagram
1. River Indus:
The Indus River is the most famous, major and the longest river in Pakistan. It origins in Lake Mansaroor, Tibet and finally after running across the country through Khyber Pakhtunkha, Punjab and Sindh Provinces flows into the Arabian Sea. In Khyber Pakhtoonkha province it is named as Abaseen which means the Father of the rivers. It displays a tidal bore and the river system is fed mainly by glaciers and snow of the Himalayas.
Flow of the river is fluctuated according to the seasons, being lower in winter, and over flowing its banks in monsoon season, from July to September 1. The formation of the embryonic Indus River, South Asia’s main source of surface water, may be began 50 million years ago when the Indian plate, Gondwanaland collided with Eurasia for the first time.
The Indus River system is consisting of three main reservoirs, 16 Barrages, 2 Siphons across major rivers, 12 inter link canals, 2 head-works, 44 canal systems (23 in Punjab, 14 in Sindh, 5 in Khyber Pakhtunkhawa and 2 in Balochstan) and more than 107000 water courses. The total length of the canals is about 56073 km. The entire basin of the river covers maximum area of about 384,000 square miles of open land, from which 204,000 sq. km lies in Pakistan. The famous Dam Tarbela and GaziBrotha Hydro Power Project are the most important engineering works on this river. Length of the Indus River – 2700 Km, Catchments area – 404220 Km and Annual Average flow – 48 MAF. Blind Dolfin is found in this river. The disputed Kala Bagh Dam have also to be constructed on this river.
2. River Sutlej:
River Sutlej is a major river in Pakistan. It is the longest river and aslo included in the rivers that give Punjab (meaning “Fiver River”) begins from the west side of Tibet in the Kailas mountain ranges. It Flows from Northwest and West – South West via Himalayan valleys; it flows through Himachal Pardesh (India) and reaches Punjab plains in Hoshiarpur district, Punjab state. Sutlej River has aslo its another name i.e Red River. According to the Sindh Tas Water Treaty 1960 the right of the India on the River Sutlej has been admitted and India also has stopped its water supply completely to Pakistan by construction of different dams and barrages. Now only in case of flood its water flows to Pakistan.
Total length – 1450 km
Length in Pakistan – 526 km
Important Engineering– Dialpir canal, Islam Barrage, SulemankiBarrye
Catchment Area – 65932 km
Annual Average flow – 0.021 MAF
The River Chenab is also a major river in Pakistan. The word Chenab is the collection of the two words “Chen” means moon and “ab” means water. The Indian also named the River Chenab, Iskmati or Ashkini in Vedic times. Chenab River is generally considered to be the second healthiest river of country after River Indus.
This river begins from the Kulu and Kangra districts of the Himachal Pradesh, provinces of India. Two Primary Streams of Chenab River—the Chandr, and the Bangr—rise at a height of 16000 feet. These two join at Tandi in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The river Chenab is feeded by too many tributaries on the long voyage from its headwaters, it attains gigantic power above Kashmir. It enters Pakistan at Sialkot near DiawaraVillage. It also joins the river Jhelum at Trimmun, District Jhang by a head works. The famous love stories of Heer Ranjha and Sohni Mahiwal circles around this famous river giving it a significant place in the Punjabi culture.
Length in Pakistan – 724 km
Important Engineerings– Marala Barrage khanki Barrage
Catchmeet Area – 41656 km
Annual Average flow – 12.38 MAF
The Jhelum is also another major river in Pakistan. This is a large eastern river of the Indus, and amongst the few rivers that begin from Kashmir. It begins from a deep spring of Vernag, in the Indian-Occupied Jammu and Kashmir state. Afterwards it moves towards North-West from the Northern slope of the PirPanjab range to Wular Lake. The river Kishangaga joins it at Mazaffarabad, and then they bend southward forming the border between Azad Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhawa. It tunrs at Jhelum City to South-West ward to Khushab District and then bends outwards for joining the Chenab River. A war was fought between the Alexander the Great and Raja Pourus on the bank of this river.
River Jhelum has become a major spot for the attraction of tourist for the last many years.
The Mangla Dam the second large dam of Pakistan is constructed on this river which is also one of the largest land-fill dams and a famous attractive spot for the tourists. Its reservoir are irrigating about 3,000,000 acres of land in Pakistan and its electricity production capacity is 300 MW. The nine bridges constructed over the river Jhelum are famous points for attraction of the tourists.
Total length – 725 km
Length in Pakistan – 379 miles
Catchment Area – 21359 miles
Annual Average flow – 11.85 MAF
5. River Ravi:
The Ravi is a famous river of Pakistan. The indians named it as “Iravati or Parushani” in Vedic times, is the smallest of the five tributaries of the great Indus River that give the Punjab Province (meaning “Five Rivers”) its name. It is an indispensable part of the Indus River system because it formulates the heads waters of the Indus basin.
Ravi origins in the Himalayas in the Indian State of Himachal Pradesh, and flows west-northwest past Chamba, bending southwest at the boundary Jammu and Kashmir. Afterwards, it flows toward the Pakistani border and along it at least 50 miles before entering Punjab. It then flowing through Lahore bends west near Kamalia, and after covering a distance of about 450 miles it empties into the Chenab River south of AhmadpurSial. Lahore, a famous, historical, ancient city and the capital of Punjab is situated at the bank of ravi River.
Hydrology of Ravi River is dependent on spring snow melt. In winters the flow in the river is considerably reduced but in summers it has flood discharges in excess of 600,000 cubic feet (17,000 cubic meters) per second
Length in Pakistan – 675 km
Important Engneerings – Balloki and Sindh nai head works.
Catchment Area – 25185 km
Amnual Average flow -1.47 MAF.