Monsoon Spells Effecting Poultry Production This Year Too!
Keeping in view weather conditions in Pakistan , like every year in summer the forecast this year has also been envisaged as high monsoon spells to be hitting country from June to September 2013. This continuous rainfall till two to three days will be effecting northern parts and central parts at the same time which has been predicted very intensive and bring out multifarious stresses in poultry production namely heat stresses, managemental stress, nutritional stress, physiological stress, physical stress , social stress, and psychological stress. In addition to this wet weather also brings out Mycotoxins which is a real hazard not only for the birds but also for human health. Hereby the poultry producers at commercial sector are needed to pay more attention for controlling the climate effects with utilization of available solutions in the animal food and feed industry. I am further elaborating these stresses below for driving production process smoothly and trust it can help reducing losses at farms level.
1: Heat Stress
The heat stress is a serious issue and always causes bird declining health at all levels therefore the bird can go deadly. The major clinical signs include dehydration, gasping, panting, panting respiration – up to 250 breaths per minute – mediating evaporative cooling from the surface of the lungs (80% of heat is lost this way). The wings spreading, stupor, staggers and convulsions also occur. The bird feels lazy , slow and lethargic. The cannibalism increases and eventually carcass grades lower. The bird becomes light body weight, poor coloring and rough skin. The egg production also drops; depending upon bird health the egg size and egg shell quality also reduce. The heat stress also increases mortality, output of urine and loss of electrolytes. During this phase the wet dropping develops and thirst increases many times than the normal instance. The bone metabolism is disturbed and Ascites incidence increase and plainly immunity to intercurrent disease is lowered. Owing to this the appetite is distressed. The indigestibility of feed and gut movements are downed. This leads to the occurrence of nutrition deficiencies. Since entire physical conditions become poor consequently less mating, poorer semen quality and female infertility happen at this point.
2: Nutritional Stress (excess salt requirement)
Following heat stress the nutrients slow down and salt requirements increases. Referring to the dietary intake says meeting the standard salt requirements maintain the nutrient status of immunity, growth, fertility and chances of disease are decreased. At this stage we should pursue the standard nutrient requirement chart and closely monitor minimum levels required by the bird. Salt deficiency results in lower feed consumption, loss of weight, lower egg production, occasionally a loss in egg size and slower growth in broilers . Sodium chloride deficiency can also increase the bird’s susceptibility to disease by suppressing the immune system. Diet ingredients used today in poultry feeding are deficient in sodium and chloride, so salt must be added for optimum performance.
Following are requirements of Broiler:
|Sr.No||Trace Mineral||Ideal/Standard requirement
(mg/kg of feed)
|3||Chromium||No supplementation required|
|7||Cobalt||No supplementation required|
Reference: NRC Poultry 1994.
The nutritional deficiency also leads to the rapid growth, sexual maturity, temperature and effects of egg production. Physically these have great effects over catching, injection, immobilization and transportation. And if there are over crowding this will enhance bird fear.
We will discuss these issues in my next articles.
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