Dairy farming in Pakistan and factors affecting Milk Production
April 24th, 2013
The livestock sector is one of the vibrant sectors of Pakistan. This sector makes important contribution to socioeconomic development of rural household and has significant positive impact on poverty alleviation. More than 35 million people are engaged in this sector for earning their livelihood. It contributes 11.5% to the national GDP and has shown growth rate of 3-4 % over the last years despite unfavourable conditions.
Dairy farming has been a prestigious occupation or pre occupation from time immemorial. Dairy production is defined as all those aspects and explicit activities relating to raising of dairy amounts during their various phases of life to get whole some milk successful dairy farming must harness all the available resources into a productive and profitable unit.
Types of dairying:
There are many types of dairying adopted in Pakistan as follows:
During summer some rural farmers shift to urban and sub-urban areas and during winter when prices low down they come back.
Some low income families employed otherwise in big cities maintain one or two animals to supplement their family income.
Commercial dairy farming:
This type of farming is rare in Pakistan. This type of farm consists of 5-50 animals. The urban and sub urban milk production system is by and large a commercial venture.
Public sector farm:
In all the 4 provinces of Pakistan, provincial live stock and dairy development departments are maintaining the buffalo AND CATTLE FARM for research and are production purposes.
Land grant farms:
A few government farms have been leased to farmers for the purpose of producing pure bred cattle of some dairy breeds of Pakistan. These farmers are mandated to produce and make available pedigreed animals of specific breeds according to their contracts.
On these farms, only lactating animals are maintained.
Salvage dairy farming:
It refers to farms where dry animals are taken after lactation to be fed, bred and kept until a few weeks before calving, after which they are again transported to urban and sub-urban areas to join the milking herd.
Factors affecting milk-yield and composition:
1-Changes occurring during a normal lactation:
In general, cows and buffaloes reach their peak milk production about 3 to 6 weeks after parturition then output declines gradually.
2-Day to day variation;
Daily variations in milk yield are caused by excitement, estrus, incomplete milking, diseases or other short term factors.
3-Dry period and body conditions;
A dry period is important for replenishing body reserves. A normal dry period of 6 to 8 weeks should be practiced.
4-Age and seasons of calving;
Milk and fat production of dairy animals increases with age up to 6 to 8 years and then declines.
Milk production of dairy animals decreases as pregnancy advances.
Dairy animals with longer calving intervals produce milk in a single lactation, but those who calve each year produce more milk during their productive life.
Generally, the animals are milked twice a day at equal milking intervals. A longer interval is associated with lower fat test.
Feeding according to recommended allowances is absolutely necessary for exploiting the production potential of the animal. The composition of the feed, physical form of the ration, the concentrate to roughages ratio and the proportion of unsaturated oils or fats in the feed effects the composition of milk.
SOME TIPS FOR INCREMENT OF MILK PRODUCTION;
Sahiwal, red Sindhi and cholistani should be kept and not the exotic species as it is more pronged to diseases.
SELECTION OF ANIMALS;
Animals should be selected which are free from diseases and well healthy and high yielding.
Proper vaccination against various diseases should be practiced at regular intervals.
PREVENTION OF MASTITIS;
It is the inflammation of mammary glands. It is serious problem of dairy animals not only in Pakistan but also in developed countries. It can result in direct and indirect losses to the farmers including an early culling to the animals, decrease milk production, milk that must be discarded and increased vet cost. So it must be prevented.
Use of concentrates and other feedings:
Meals and cakes are high in energy value so these substances fulfill the daily nutrient requirements of animals. They must be used in a proper concentration and other green fodder is excessively provided to the milking stock.
Clean and fresh water should be provided 3-5 times a day in summer and 2-3 times in winter or as large as animal desires.
By Dr.M.zahid farooq, Dr.M.yonus Dr. Asghar Hussain, Dr. Arfan zaman College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Jhang
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