January 25, 2013


an humble student of  Avian Sciences  for   consideration

by  the Entrepreneurs,  Specialists  &  Experts

1       No lesson seems to have been learnt from the unrelenting persistence of  infectious   diseases despite all efforts to contain their spread; Maxim, probably is, more the Medicines & more Vaccines,  more  the Disease !


2       In the larger National interest & in the interest of   Poultry  Farmer let us please think, meditate, discuss, apply ourselves to the challenge and strive to avoid repetition of panic-stricken, waste-oriented temporary  emergency measures, like indiscriminate  use of  Drugs or Vaccines.


3       The basket of Vaccines is pretty fragile, Let us not put all our eggs in it. Vaccine is not a Medicine, it is not a panacea nor an Amritdhara. It has no magical properties. It is not the “end-all & be-all” of disease  eradication. Probability of  adverse  fall-out, if any, after use of live-virus vaccines  can also not be shoved under the carpet.


4       Vaccine cannot prevent the body from getting infected, it may prevent the  disease, provided body is not deficient and responds adequately.


5       Vaccine is merely ONE of the MANY  inter-dependant & inter-linked     “Managemental”  procedures, indispensible for the maintenance of    physical+physiological Health, at individual as well as flock levels.


6       It is the body that reacts with foreign antigen (Vaccine or Pathogen); such reaction can be positive (immunity)  or  negative  (no immunity)


7       For the reaction to be positive,  the body has to be healthy, and immuno-competent to identify the “foreign agent” and store it in memmory for  as long as possible.


8       Each body in a flock comprising (thousands or hundred of thousands) individuals does not react identically; Chick are not “cloned,” some react properly,  some poorly, while a few may not react at all.



9       The  weak, sick, anorexic, anoxic, dehydrated (with water in body at  less than optimum threshold), under the influence of physical/physiological Stress, eating feed laced with mycotoxins, drinking non-potable water, living in hostile ambience, forced to take highly potent drugs, etc, may not benefit from vaccine and prove a handicap for others by  remaining  vulnerable to disease..

10  Immunity (due to positive response to an antigen) is a highly specialised, highly selective phenomenon of last line of defense, and in order to be effective, it needs to be supported by preliminary lines of defense.


11  All lines of defense are effective in a body that is at optimum level of physical+phisiological health which, to a very great extent, can be strenghthened  through  providing correct  prophylactic support.


12  Unnecessary/injudicious/indiscriminate use of a vaccines can induce covert alteration in the epizootiological ecology of infectious agents; It may lead to modification in pathognomy  manifest through  “a-typical” syndromes,  which  may defy spot diagnosis.


13  In order to assist the Farmer to achieve positive results and to avoid misuse or abuse, an effective well-oriented system of monitoring the import and local manufacture of Vaccines, their storage and application in field, will need to be brought under  surveillance of  persons professionally  qualified to do so.


14  Vaccine, Vaccination, Immunisation and Immunity are not one and the

same thing; Each has its own identity and imperatives, each asks for

due respect and recognition or else, we will have what we have.


15  Killed, inactivated, live–attenuated, modified and, virulent field  antigen, all evoke a certain type of  specific reaction that elicits specific response in the body. End–result usually depends on which-ever (virulent field antigen or attenuated lab antigen) gets first  opportunity to enter the body and occupy its norms.



*   elimination, extermination of the host through depopulation is out of

question in the context of our socio-economic limitations


*    Stop-gap , half-hearted measures  are   waste-oriented and  in-effective.



*   Out-come of short-term steps taken under panic, like emergency use of

locally-brewed  vaccines, may  prove  counter-productive, unless  very

closely monitored (from production  up to its use) and discontinued  at

a  cut-off  point.




A        adopt the universally acclaimed /tried /tested standard measures of

bio-Security (biological management) and enjoy long-lasting gains.


B       go for farming to “convert Feed into Food”  (Eggs & Meat), instead

of  keeping poultry  merely for fun.


C       give due priority to:-

_ Confirmative  diagnosis of disease and competent advise;

_ Differentiation of causal agents (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, etc)

associated with identical signs, symptoms, pathology, prognosis,

_ Confirmation of their existence/prevalence in our environments,

_  Identification of their sources, reservoirs, carriers, mode of

dissemination, etc,


D       devise a comprehensive strategy to:-

_  physically  & biologically contain the spread of infection

_  break the continuity of “residual infection carry-over” from one

flock /farm to another

_ create /enforce  effective barriers in  the way of horizontal and

vertical transmission of infection,

_ help the body to respond positively to vaccine

_  minimise availability of susceptible hosts (un-ending repetitious

cycles of raising broiler flocks would demand extra-special

strategy to check  “adding fuel to the Fire” i.e., putting  fresh

chicks in a house while the infection continues to “simmer” in

the environment. FIRE is present, it’s   HEAT  may not be felt 

 unless it  explodes  into an outbreak.

_  harmonise the vaccination programme with the cyclic “coming-

in  & going-out” of one flock after another; presence of multi-

age flocks on same premises & under same management shall

offer a difficult challenge to devise prophylactic schedule.

_  respect the basic /fundamental  “ DO`s & DON T`s ” of the

vocation,in order to convert raw material inedible by man into

un-adulterable  delicious Food edible for humans.




_We can deceive ourselves but we  cannot  cheat a chicken through

“bye-passing”   the  Managemental prerequisites or by substituting

short-cuts, instead of  the  laid down chain of proccedures,

howsoever difficult or demanding.

_   the prescribed chores may, at time, appear illogical/unpracticable,

yet, despite all the unbelievable technological achievements,

unfortunately neither any alternative  to basics of management has

so  far been discovered  nor any short cuts   in Farming techniques

have   as  yet been identified.



*  cull the stragglers who will not be able to “keep-in-step” with the rest of

flock; The selected ones thus  allowed to perform , will not only, more

than  compensate  for  the  loss of  the  culled ones, but  will  also

respond  positively to  managemental and prophylactic strategies.

*   never establish  “sick-pen”  (Bank of infections) in the house; Culls will

never deliver, never achieve the target of production, rather   will serve

as open invitation for the external factors, inimical to health, to   enter

the  house, proliferate, kill and raise cost of production.


*   anoxia at the start, i.e., in brooding house,  can precipitate a long term

deterioration in productivity, though visibly the bird may appear healthy

*   maintenance of flock  “health” should be the basic  criterion of farming,

instead of “disease” involving waste of energy  & resources on treatment of individual bird. A sick bird may seem to recover, but is there any guarantee that its productive mechanism will also perform Damaged  reproductive  physiology can remain unproductive.


*   place emphasis where it is due, for example, on meeting the specific

requirements of space, ambience, nutrition, etc, and monitor the rate of

growth, body weight, FCR, etc, peculiar to the type of each strain of the

modern hybrid bird.


PLEASE do not throw this away. It may provide lots of material for MURGHBAN if carefully sought into.  Please do try. Jaffery


 Copyright:  Zaraimedia.com

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