Maize production fact sheet for KPK

January 17, 2013

Allah Dad Khan Provincial Project Director CMPII .

Allah Dad Khan

Maize History

Maize production
Maize production

Maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays, pronounced /ˈmeɪz/; which is known in many English-speaking countries as corn) is a grass domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The Aztecs and Mayans cultivated it in numerous varieties throughout central and southern Mexico, to cook or grind in a process called nixtamalization. Later the crop spread through much of the Americas.

Maize Status
Maize being the highest yielding cereal crop in the world, is of significant importance for countries like Pakistan, where rapidly increasing population has already out stripped the available food supplies.In Pakistan maize is third important cereal after wheat and rice.

Maize accounts for 4.8% of the total cropped area and 3.5% of the value of agricultural output. It is planted on an estimated area of 0.9 million hectare with an annual production of 1.3 million tonnes.

The bulk (97%) of the total production come from two major provinces, Khyber {Pukhtunkhwa , accounting for 57% of the total area and 68% of total production. Punjab contributes 38% acreage with 30% of total maize grain production. Very little maize 2-3% is produced in the province of Sindh and Baluchistan.

Though not included in Pakistan official statistics maize is an important crop of AJK with about 0.122 million hectare of maize being planted during kharif. Similarly a very growing and high yielding sector of maize, the spring maize area and production in Punjab is not accounted for , which covers around 0.070 million ha with about 050 million tonnes of maize grain being produced.

A fact sheet is provided for Maize production technology.

 

 

Climate Climate of Khyber PukhtunKhwa , Northern areas and AJK is favorable for maize production
Maize  Seed Maize seed should have the following character stics

  1. Improved
  2. Recommended by Agriculture Research
  3. Certified by FSCRD
  4. It should be pure.
  5. The seed from from diseases and other ailments.
Availability Improved variety of Maize Seed is available with Agriculture Extension and Agriculture Research beside progressive farmers .The seed iof hybrid from Seed companies.The Following varieties are recommended

  1. Ghouri Hybrid 2. Karamat Hybrid. 3. Baber Hybrid. 4. Jalal. 5.Azam. 6. Pehari. 7. Iqbal 8. Sarhad White
Seed Treatment
Seed treatment for Diseases Fungicides  such as Dithane M, Benlate and Bayton 2 gm per kg seed.
Seed treatment for Insects Confidor 7gm per kg of seed

 

Preparation of Land After harvesting of previous crop two plopughings  which control weeds and also conserve moisture.It would be appropriate if chiesel plough is given once in three years to break the plate formed  by ploughings.For crop sowing after irrigation when the soil is in wattar condition two ploughings followed by sohaga.
Fertilizer Use Recommendation By Research

Area Fertilizer Use per Acre
Rainfall Nitrogen Phosphorus Potash
20-30Inches 1.5 bags 1 bag DAP 1 bag SOP
More than 30Inches Irrigated Area 1.75 Bags 2 bags DAP 25kgSOP

 

 

 

Method of use 1.At seed Bed Preparation

Full amount of DAP ½ Amount of N Full amount of SOP

2.When the plants are 1.5 to 2 Ft

Remaining half of urea be used.

Time of sowing
Variety of seed Spring Maize Kharif Crop Areas
1.Ghori , Hybrid Jalal Sarhad 1.10th to 28th Feb 

 

 

1.20th june to 10th July 

 

1.PeshawarMardanKohat Division
2.Karamat and Baber Hybrid 2.10th Feb to 10th March 

 

2. 2oth June to 20th July 

 

2. PeshawarMardanKohat
3.Azam , Phari, Iqbal 3.10th Feb to 20th March 3.20th June to 20th Aug 3. PeshawarMardanKohat
1.Ghori , Hybrid Jalal Sarhad ========

 

1.1st to 15th June 1.Malakand and Hazara Division
2.Karamat and Baber Hybrid ========== 2. 1st to 15th June 

 

1.Malakand and Hazara Division
3.Azam , Phari, Iqbal ========== 3. 1st    July to 30th June 1.Malakand and Hazara Division
1.Ghori , Hybrid Jalal Sarhad 20th Jan to 20th Feb 1st July to  20th July 1.Bannu and DIKhan Division
2.Karamat and Baber Hybrid 20th Jan t0 28th Feb 1s t  July to 30th July 2. Bannu and DIKhan Division
3.Azam , Phari, Iqbal 20th Jan to 20th March 1st July to 15th August 3. Bannu and DIKhan Division
1.Ghori , Hybrid Jalal Sarhad ========== 1st April to 31st May 1.Northern Areas, Kaghan and AJK
2.Karamat and Baber Hybrid ========== 1st April to 10th June 2.Northern Areas, Kaghan and AJK
3.Azam , Phari, Iqbal ========== 1st April to 20th June 3.Northern Areas, Kaghan and AJK
Hybrid of different companies are provided to farmers along with instruction of sowing at present Pioneer, ICI , Cargill , Monsanto are the multinational companies in Maize  seed Business

 

Method of Sowing of crop
Tapa/Dibbler 8 to 10 kg
Broad cast and Keera 12 to 16 kgs
Planter/Kharif drill 10 to  12 kgs

 

Thining of crop and number of plants per acre
Variety Time to maturityNumber of days Number of plants per acre in thousands
Pehari, Iqbal 75 to 85 days 35 to 40
Baber, Azam, Karamat 85 to 100 25 to 30
Ghuri, Jalal Sarhad White 100 to 120 20 to 25
Thining should be done when the height of plant is 20 to 25 CMDistance from Row to Row be kept at 75 CM , and from plant to plant , 15, 20, and 25 CM respectively  for above duration .

 

Irrigation 6 to 8 irrigation  depending on climatic conditions . watering at three stages are the prime requirements , at flowering stage , fertilization time and at grain formation
Weed Control Through mechanical means and through chemical . Thye following chemicals provided good results

  1. Primextra Gold @ 400 to 600 ml per acre just after sowing of maize crop.
  2. Round Up  @ one to 1.5 liter per acre 20to 25 days before sowing in watter condition
Earthing up Eathing up just after thining
Plant Protection
Insets Control
Maize Stem Borer 6 to 7 kgs Furadon Granules per acre at sowing and if attack is observed then use Furadon or any other granules in leaf sheath of crop .
Diseases
Bacterial Leaf Blight Consult Agriculture Experts
Bacterial leaf spot Consult Agriculture Experts
Anthacnose Leaf Blight Consult Agriculture Experts
Anthraconose Stalk Rot Consult Agriculture Experts
Maize smut Consult Agriculture Experts

 

Harvesting When the cobs ripes and a small black scvar on seed harvest the crop. Remove seed from dried cobs with sheller.
Drying Dry  produce in sunlight
Storage of grain Store in clean and insect free bags. Fumigate store before placing grain .

 

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